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Overview of Trends of Economic Inequality in Argentina
|Has the dispersion of earnings been increasing in recent decades?||No evidence.|
|Has overall inequality increased in recent years?||No, the Gini coefficient has instead fallen by 8 percentage points since 2001.|
|Have there been periods when overall inequality fell for a sustained period?||Yes, in addition to the recent years, overall inequality and top shares fell from early 1950s to end of the 1970s.|
|Has poverty been falling or rising in recent decades?||Poverty has risen sharply during the 1980s and fallen from 1989 to 1993. It then rose dramatically till 2002 before falling sharply again till 2010.|
|Has there been a U-pattern for top income shares over time?||Yes, top gross income shares fell from 1943 to 1973, and have risen in recent decade.|
|Has the distribution of wealth followed the same pattern as income?||No evidence.|
|Additional noteworthy features||Rise in poverty rate before 1989 and 2002.|
Sources and References
Sources for the historical data series:
Overall inequality: series 1: Gini coefficient for household income from national CONADE-CEPAL estimates from Altimir (1986, Cuadro 7); series 2: Gini coefficient for household income for Greater Buenos Aires from Altimir (1986, Cuadro 4, original figures); series 3: Gini coefficient for household per capita income for the urban population (Greater Buenos Aires from 1974 to 1992, 15 main cities from 1992 to 1998, 28 main cities from 1998 to 2003, now covers approximately 60 per cent of total population) from SEDLAC (Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean), a joint CEDLAS and World Bank project – see Gasparini and Cruces, 2008, and Gasparini, Cruces and Tornarolli, 2011), linked backwards at 1992 to the series from 1974 for Greater Buenos Aires (only).
Top income shares: Shares of top 1 and 0.1 per cent in total gross income Share of from WTID, based on work of Alvaredo (2010).
Poverty: Percentage below of individuals below national poverty line for urban population (Greater Buenos Aires from 1974 to 1992, 15 main cities from 1992 to 1998, 28 main cities from 1998 to 2003, now covers approximately 60 per cent of total population), from SEDLAC (see above), linked backwards at 1992 as described above.
Individual earnings: no suitable data were found. Wealth: no suitable data were found.
- Altimir, O, 1986, “Estimaciones de la distibución del ingreso en la Argentina, 1953- 1980”, Desarrollo Económico, vol 25: 521-566.
- Alvaredo, F, 2010, “The rich in Argentina over the twentieth century 1932-2004” in A B Atkinson and T Piketty, editors, Top incomes: A global perspective, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Gasparini, L and Cruces, G, 2008, “A distribution in motion: The case of Argentina”, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
- Gasparini, L, Cruces, G and Tornarolli, R, 2011, “Recent trends in income inequality in Latin America”, Economia, vol 11: 147-190.